∞ chaff= inedible parts that separate from grain after dried

∞ lateral bud= bud on side of stem

∞ terminal bud= bud at end of stem

∞ leaf scar= mark where leaf used to be attached

∞ meristem= zone of plant where cell division and growth occurs, apical at tip of branches, lateral under bark of branch

∞ pedicel= stalk of individual flower in an inflorescence of multiple flowers

∞ peduncle= stalk of inflorescence

∞ petal= innermost set of modified leaves in flower

∞ rachis= central axis of compound leaf or inflorescence

∞ bract

∞ petiole= stem of a leaf

∞ lenticel= spot on bark, air exchange

∞ midrib / midvein= prominent vein down center of leaf, called midrib when larger

∞ axil= upper angle where leaf meets stem

∞ rosette= circular set of leaves, usually at base of stem, often first year of perennial

∞ node= spot on stem where one or more leaves come off from

∞ herbaceous= no perennial woody tissue above ground

Types of Flowers

∞ inflorescence= all parts of a flower or cluster of flowers

∞ raceme= cluster of flowers, flowers on individual stems coming off main stem

∞ spike= cluster of flowers, flowers attached directly to stem, no pedicels

∞ panicle= cluster of flowers, more complex raceme, branching stems off the stems on the main stem

∞ umbel= cluster of flowers, pedicels come from one point

∞ compound umbel= branch at one point and then pedicels branch again

∞ cyme= branching pedicels creating a flat-topped cluster of flowers

∞ composite= cluster of tiny flowers, called florets, that looks like one flower

Leaf Shapes

∞ compound= multiple leaflets

∞ simple= not compound

∞ leaflet= small leaf, makes up compound leaf

∞ lanceolate= longer than it is wide, wider at base and narrowing to tip

∞ ovate= similar to lanceolate in that it is wider at base and narrows to tip, but much shorter

∞ elliptic= same width entire length

∞ linear= much longer than wide, similar width entire length

∞ asymmetrical

∞ lobed= extensions on leaf blade, typical of oak leaves

∞ palmate= hand-shaped with lobes

∞ pinnately compound= feather-like, many leaflets coming off in two rows on opposite sides of midvein, typical of ferns and legumes

∞ palmately compound= multiple leaflets coming from one point

∞ divided= shape of lobed except indents go to the midrib, different from compound because all one leaf, each section is asymmetrical

Leaf Patterns

∞ opposite= two leaves grow from same node on opposite sides

∞ alternate= two leaves grow on opposite sides from different nodes

∞ tendril= modified leaf or branch that coils around something else to grow, supports vine

∞ sessile= leaves grow directly from stem, no stalk or pedicel

∞ whorled= more than two leaves growing from one node

∞ clasping= base of leaf wraps around stem

Underground Parts

∞ taproot= one main root grows downward, not horizontally, generally very thick and good for breaking up compact soil

∞ fibrous roots= highly branched root system, grows horizontally and downward

∞ corm= base of upright stem, enlarged to store energy

∞ bulb= modified bud, enlarged leaves store energy, onion is an example

∞ rhizome= horizontal stem on or under the ground, roots at nodes

∞ tuber= enlarged stem underground where energy is stored, usually starch


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